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中国政协的简要历史A Brief History of the CPPCC
发布时间: 2015-12-11 11:00:00  |  来源: 中国网  |  作者: 秦金月  |  责任编辑: 秦金月

中国人民政治协商会议(简称人民政协)是中国共产党把马克思列宁主义统一战线理论、政党理论和民主政治理论同中国具体实践相结合的伟大创造,是中国共产党同各民主党派、人民团体和各族各界人士风雨同舟、团结奋斗的伟大成果。

The Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) is a great creation combining the theories on united front, political party and democracy of Marxism-Leninism with China’s concrete practice by the CPC. It is a grand achievement by CPC with all democratic parties, mass organizations and personages of all ethnic groups and sectors accomplished through united struggles and hard work.

1949年9月21日,由中国共产党、各民主党派和无党派人士、各人民团体、各地区、人民解放军、各少数民族、国外华侨及其他爱国民主分子的代表组成的中国人民政治协商会议第一届全体会议在北平(今之北京)召开。这次会议代行全国人民代表大会的职权,代表全国人民的意志,通过了具有临时宪法性质的《中国人民政治协商会议共同纲领》,通过了《中国人民政治协商会议组织法》、《中华人民共和国中央人民政府组织法》;决定中华人民共和国定都于北京,国旗为五星红旗、以《义勇军进行曲》为国歌、采用公元作为纪年;选举产生了中国人民政治协商会议第一届全国委员会和中华人民共和国中央人民政府委员会,宣告了中华人民共和国的成立,掀开了新中国历史的第一页。

On September 21, 1949, the First Plenary Session of the CPPCC was held in Peiping (present Beijing) with representatives from the CPC, all democratic parties and personages without party affiliation, all mass organizations, regions, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, ethnic groups, overseas Chinese and other patriotic democrats. The meeting which acted on behalf of the NPC’s authority and the will of national people adopted the Common Program of the CPPCC with the nature of an interim Constitution, Organic Law of the CPPCC and Organic Law of Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China; at the meeting, it decided to establish the capital of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in Beijing with the Five-Starred Red Flag as the national flag and the March of the Volunteers as a national anthem as well as establishing the Christian era as a way of numbering the years; it also elected the first National Committee of the CPPCC and Central People’s Government Council of the PRC, having proclaimed the founding of the PRC and opening the first page of the New China.

新中国成立后,中国人民政治协商会议全国委员会及其常务委员会作为统一战线的组织和协商机构,对国家大政方针的实施发挥了经常的、重要的协商作用。为恢复和发展国民经济,巩固新生的人民民主政权,协助政府推动各项社会改革,发展人民民主统一战线,做出了重要贡献。

After the New China was founded, the National Committee and the Standing Committee of the CPPCC, as an organic and consultative agency of united front, played a standing and important part in the consultation for the implementation of the fundamental policies of the state, and made significant contributions to the recovery and development of our national economy, consolidating the newly born people’s democratic regime, assisting the government with the promotion of all social reforms and expanding the united front of the people’s democracy.  

全国政协一届二次会议期间,毛泽东和民主党派的委员们合影。前排左起:张凤翙、陈叔通、毛泽东、李济深、张澜;后排左起:王昆仑、刘清扬,许广平、陈劭先、李任仁。

1954年9月,第一届全国人民代表大会举行第一次会议,通过了《中华人民共和国宪法》。同年12月,召开了政协第二届全国委员会第一次会议,制定了《中国人民政治协商会议章程》。《章程》宣告,共同纲领已经为宪法所代替,人民政协全体会议代行全国人民代表大会职权的任务已经完成。但是人民政协作为人民民主统一战线组织,将继续存在和发挥作用。政协第二届全国委员会第一次会议后,各省、自治区、直辖市分别建立了人民政协的地方委员会。

The September 1954 meeting was the first meeting of the 1st NPC which adopted the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. In December 1954, the first meeting of the 2nd National Committee of the CPPCC passed the CPPCC Charter proclaiming that the Common Program had been replaced with the Constitution and that the Plenary Session of the CPPCC had finished its task of acting on behalf of the NPC. However, the CPPCC would continue to play a role as the organization of the united front of people’s democracy. After the first meeting of the 2nd National Committee of the CPPCC, local committees of the CPPCC were established in provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government respectively.

从1955年至1966年的十多年里,中国政协在团结各族人民和各界爱国力量,发扬人民民主,活跃国家政治和社会生活,以及调动一切积极因素为国家建设服务等方面发挥了十分重要的作用。

For more than a decade from 1955 to 1966, the CPPCC played quite a vital role in uniting people of all ethnic groups and the patriotic force of various sectors, promoting people’s democracy, activating state’s political and social life and mobilizing all positive factors to the building of the state.

1978年,中国进入了改革开放和现代化建设的新时期,中国政协也开始了一个新的发展时期。各级政协围绕推进改革开放、推进现代化建设和推进祖国统一大业,积极议政建言,维护社会安定团结,加强同港澳台同胞和海外侨胞的联系,增进同各国和各国人民的相互了解和交流合作,在国家政治、经济、文化和社会生活中发挥了重要作用。

In the year 1978, as China entered a new period of reform and opening up and modernization construction, the CPPCC started its new development epochs when the CPPCC at all levels played an important part in the state’s politics, economy, culture, and social life. They also propelled reform and opening up, modernization construction, and the grand cause to achieve national reunification, actively participated in government affairs, and maintained social stability and unity, while intensifying the exchange with compatriots of Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan and overseas Chinese and enhancing mutual understanding and exchange and cooperation with all countries and people. 

进入新世纪、新阶段,中国的统一战线进一步扩大,发展成为由全体社会主义劳动者、社会主义事业的建设者、拥护社会主义的爱国者和拥护祖国统一的爱国者组成的最广泛的爱国统一战线,中国政协也发展成为包括以上各个方面的、由各党派团体和各族各界代表人士组成的爱国统一战线组织。人民政协认真贯彻落实中共中央提出的科学发展观、构建社会主义和谐社会等一系列重大战略思想,在继承历届政协优良传统和工作经验的基础上,开拓进取,不断创新,工作呈现出新的蓬勃生机和活力。

While entering into a new century and a new stage, China’s united front was further expanding which had bloomed into a most extensive patriotic united front made up of all socialist laborers, the builders of the socialist cause and patriots standing up for socialism and national reunification. Likewise, the CPPCC had become a patriotic united front organization including the above personages and representatives from all political parties, mass organizations, ethnic groups and various sectors of society. The CPPCC conscientiously carried out a series of major strategic thoughts including the Scientific Outlook on Development and building a socialist harmonious society put forward by the CPC Central Committee while inheriting the fine tradition and work experience of all previous CPPCC to blaze new trails in a pioneering spirit, continue to explore new ways and display new dynamism in its work.

中国政协半个多世纪不平凡的发展历程,可以归结为两大主题:团结和民主。在中国共产党领导下实行团结和民主,是中国政协性质的集中体现,是中国政协产生和发展的历史和现实依据,是中国政协继往开来的方向和使命。展望未来,中国政协在发展中国特色社会主义伟大事业、实现中华民族伟大复兴的进程中,必将发挥更大的作用。

The extraordinary history of development of the CPPCC for more than a half century can be summarized into two themes: unity and democracy. Implementing unity and democracy under the leadership of the CPC was the concentrated reflection of the nature of CPPCC, the historical and realistic basis for the emergence and development of the CPPCC as well as the orientation and the mission of the CPPCC’s dedication and continuation to move forward. Looking forward to the future, the CPPCC will surely be playing a bigger part in the progress for promoting the great cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics and realizing the Chinese nation’s great rejuvenation.

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